# 欢迎哈佛中国项目的访问学生

March 8, 2022

## 向晨

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# 介绍哈佛中国项目的新进博士后: Peter Sherman

February 28, 2022

Peter Sherman

Peter Sherman, 哈佛中国项目博士后，他最近获得了博士学位。他毕业于哈佛大学地球与行星科学系。他说，回顾他在哈佛的研究生时光，他感恩对本科生和当地高中生的指导。“让年轻人有机会了解（偶尔会遇到困难！）研究帮助我以我开始指导时没有想到的方式完善了我的教学和科学观点，”彼得解释道。 “从这些经验中，我学会了如何更好地综合和呈现研究，从而更容易‘坚持’人们学习气候变化科学。” 彼得对能源和气候变化研究的热情转化为他作为哈佛中国项目博士后研究员的新角色，他正在努力帮助了解气候危机的范围并提供可以实施以缓解这些问题的解决方案。 彼得的重点是区域气候变化如何影响人们，以及我们如何通过使我们的能源系统脱碳来减少一些主要后果——其中大部分是建立在他的博士学位基础上的研究。“我们特别关注电力部门以及一些难以减排的部门的脱碳方法，并考虑了一些项目，旨在跟进我们过去对印度电力部门和绿色能源所做的研究，”彼得说。“我还对关注气候和能源交叉的项目感兴趣，目前正在开展一个较小的项目，研究气候变化对未来空调需求的影响（以及由此对电网造成的影响）。 ” 彼得期待继续与哈佛中国项目的同事合作，并指出“整个团队非常棒，因为有来自各个领域的专家，从气候到大气化学再到能源系统规划。...

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March 1, 2022

# 姜海洋 Haiyang Jiang

Jianglong Li, Mun S. Ho, Chunping Xie, and Nicholas Stern. 2022. “China's flexibility challenge in achieving carbon neutrality by 2060.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 158, April, Pp. 112112. Publisher's VersionAbstract
China, with a heavy dependence on coal power, has announced a clear goal of carbon neutrality by 2060. Electrification of final energy use and high penetration of renewable energy are essential to achieve this. The resulting growth of intermittent renewables and changes in demand curve profiles require greater flexibility in the power system for real-time balancing – greater ability of generators and consumers to ramp up and down. However, the plan and market system with regulated prices makes this challenging. We discuss the options to improve flexibility, including 1) increasing supply-side flexibility, through retrofitting existing power plants to boost their responsiveness; 2) promoting flexibility from power grids, through building an efficient power grid with inter-provincial and inter-regional transmission capacity to balance spatial mismatch, given that China has a vast territory; 3) encouraging demand flexibility, through demand-response measures to enable demand shifting over time and space to address fluctuations in renewable energy generation; and 4) providing flexibility from energy storage. We consider policies to achieve this, in particular, power market reforms to unlock the flexibility potential of these sources. Regulated electricity prices and lack of auxiliary services markets are major obstacles and we discuss how markets in other countries provide lessons in providing incentives for a more flexible system.
Jianglong Li and Mun S. Ho. 2022. “Indirect cost of renewable energy: Insights from dispatching.” Energy Economics, 105, January 2022, Pp. 105778. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The rapidly falling costs of renewable energy has made them the focus of efforts in making a low-carbon transition. However, when cheap large-scale energy storage is not available, the variability of renewables implies that fossil-based technologies have to ramp up-and-down frequently to provide flexibility for matching electricity demand and supply. Here we provide a study on the indirect cost of renewable energy due to thermal efficiency loss of coal plants with such ramping requirements. Using monthly panel data for China, we show that higher renewable share is associated with fewer operating hours of coal-fired units (COHOUR). We use an instrumental variable depending on natural river flows to identify the causal effect of reduced COHOURs in raising the heat rate of coal-fired units. Specifically, a 1 percentage point increase in the share of renewables leads to a 6.4 h reduction per month, and a reduction of one COHOUR results in a 0.09 gce/kWh increase of gross heat rate (+0.03%). We estimate that the thermal efficiency loss indicates 4.77 billion US dollars of indirect cost of renewables in 2019, or 9.44 billion if we include the social cost of carbon emissions. These results indicate that we should consider the indirect impacts of renewables on total coal use and the importance of increasing flexibility of the system.

# 2021年春/夏季新闻通讯

October 14, 2021

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